What are the 3 components of addiction?

Substance abuse is a pattern of compulsive substance use characterized by significant recurring adverse social, occupational, legal, or interpersonal consequences, such as repeated absences from work or school, arrests, and marital difficulties. The reader should not confuse this definition of addiction with other related terms. Although similar, this definition of addiction should not be confused with the diagnostic criteria for a category of disorders known as addictive and substance-related disorders (APA, 201). We will compare and contrast other terms later in this chapter.

Finally, a strength of the component model of addictions (4) is to provide a model that reduces the similarities of addictions to six main components. It is important to note that the CMAT is empirically based on the fact that it has been empirically demonstrated that all component vulnerabilities are important etiological and maintenance factors of addictive behaviors and can be addressed in treatment. Finally, the CMAT fits the third category of transdiagnostic treatments identified by Sauer-Zavala (4), since it has been discovered that the hypothetical components included in this treatment model are fundamental mechanistic features of addictive disorders. In addition, studies are needed to determine if the vulnerabilities of the listed components represent important mechanisms that explain the effectiveness of treatment in a variety of addictive disorders.

The excessive appetite theory of addictions shares overlapping components with the general theoretical model of addiction, including learning processes in which people associate addictive behavior with the relief of negative affect (i). A working model of the component model of addiction treatment that represents the vulnerabilities of the components and the corresponding possibilities for intervention. Focusing on the vulnerabilities of treatment components is likely to lead to improvements not only in primary addiction, but also in any secondary addiction that may be present. Future directions will include the creation of an evaluation tool that has clinical validity to help treatment providers determine which components of vulnerabilities are the most important to be attacked in treatment.

To this end, the article presents a developing transdiagnostic addiction treatment model that focuses on the underlying similarities between behavioral addictions and substance use addictions, called the addiction treatment component model (CMAT). As new evidence emerges that identifies the vulnerabilities of the new components and advances are made in the treatment of addictive disorders, the CMAT will be reviewed to reflect the most recent evidence base in the treatment of addictive disorders.